FRLP - I+D+i - GRUTN - GMG - TRABAJOS DE INVESTIGACIÓNhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12272/17642020-10-27T15:27:11Z2020-10-27T15:27:11ZClogging transition of many particle systems flowing through bottleneckshttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12272/28312019-02-04T19:31:16Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZClogging transition of many particle systems flowing through bottlenecks
When a large set of discrete bodies passes through a bottleneck, the flow may become intermittent due to the development of clogs that obstruct the constriction. Clogging is observed, for instance, in colloidal suspensions, granular materials and crowd swarming, where consequences may be dramatic. Despite its ubiquity, a general framework embracing research in such a wide variety of scenarios is still lacking. We show that in systems of very different nature and scale -including sheep herds, pedestrian crowds, assemblies of grains, and colloids- the probability distribution of time lapses between the passages of consecutive bodies exhibits a power-law tail with an exponent that depends on the system condition. Consequently, we identify the transition to clogging in terms of the divergence of the average time lapse. Such a unified description allows us to put forward a qualitative clogging state diagram whose most conspicuous feature is the presence of a length scale qualitatively related to the presence of a finite size orifice. This approach helps to understand paradoxical phenomena, such as the faster-is-slower effect predicted for pedestrians evacuating a room and might become a starting point for researchers working in a wide variety of situations where clogging represents a hindrance.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZStructure of force networks in tapped particulate systems of disks and pentagons II Persistence analysishttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12272/28292019-02-04T19:31:02Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZStructure of force networks in tapped particulate systems of disks and pentagons II Persistence analysis
In the companion paper [Pugnaloni et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062902 (2016)], we use classical measures based on force probability density functions (PDFs), as well as Betti numbers (quantifying the number of components, related to force chains, and loops), to describe the force networks in tapped systems of disks and pentagons. In the present work, we focus on the use of persistence analysis, which allows us to describe these networks in much more detail. This approach allows us not only to describe but also to quantify the differences between the force networks in different realizations of a system, in different parts of the considered domain, or in different systems. We show that persistence analysis clearly distinguishes the systems that are very difficult or impossible to differentiate using other means. One important finding is that the differences in force networks between disks and pentagons are most apparent when loops are considered: the quantities describing properties of the loops may differ significantly even if other measures (properties of components, Betti numbers, force PDFs, or the stress tensor) do not distinguish clearly or at all the investigated systems.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZExperimental proof of faster is slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictionshttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12272/28282019-02-04T19:30:28Z2015-01-01T00:00:00ZExperimental proof of faster is slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions
The “faster-is-slower” (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.
2015-01-01T00:00:00ZApparent mass during silo discharge Nonlinear effects related to filling protocolshttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12272/28222019-02-04T19:30:11Z2017-01-01T00:00:00ZApparent mass during silo discharge Nonlinear effects related to filling protocols
We study the evolution of the force exerted by a granular column on the bottom surface of a silo during its discharge. Previous to the discharge, we prepare the system using different filling procedures: distributed, i.e. a homogeneous rain of grains across the cross-section of the silo; concentric, a granular jet along the silo axis; and a combination of both, i.e. filling half of the silo using one procedure and the second half using the other. We observe that each filling protocol leads to distinctive evolutions of the apparent mass (i.e., the effective weight sensed at the base) during the discharge. Interestingly, the use of combined filling protocols may lead to a reduced apparent mass, smaller than any other achieved with a simple filling. We propose a model based on the Janssen rationale that quantitatively accounts for the latter puzzling experimental observation.
2017-01-01T00:00:00Z